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molecules:ism:c2h [2019/02/25 22:38]
127.0.0.1 external edit
molecules:ism:c2h [2019/10/21 17:18] (current)
mueller
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 The ethynyl radical in its <​sup>​2</​sup>​Σ ground vibrational state was detected with the NRAO 11 m telescope in the four stronger of the six hyperfine components of the //N// = 1 – 0 rotational transitions near 87.4 GHz by\\ The ethynyl radical in its <​sup>​2</​sup>​Σ ground vibrational state was detected with the NRAO 11 m telescope in the four stronger of the six hyperfine components of the //N// = 1 – 0 rotational transitions near 87.4 GHz by\\
 K. D. Tucker, M. L. Kutner, and P. Thaddeus,\\ K. D. Tucker, M. L. Kutner, and P. Thaddeus,\\
-**[[http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/​abs/​1974ApJ...193L.115T|The Ethynyl Radical C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H – A New Interstellar Molecule]]**,​\\+**[[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1974ApJ...193L.115T|The Ethynyl Radical C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H – A New Interstellar Molecule]]**,​\\
 //​Astrophys. J.// **193** L115–L119 (1974)\\ //​Astrophys. J.// **193** L115–L119 (1974)\\
 before it was actually detected in the laboratory. The identification was based on hyperfine parameters obtained from electron-spin resonance measurements of ethynyl isolated in argon matrices. The molecule is rather ubiquitous as it has been detected in several star-forming regions such as W3, Orion A, Sgr B2, Sgr A, of which several include photon-dominated regions (PDRs), most notably M17 SW. It has also been detected in the circumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich late-type star CW Leo, also known as IRC +10216. before it was actually detected in the laboratory. The identification was based on hyperfine parameters obtained from electron-spin resonance measurements of ethynyl isolated in argon matrices. The molecule is rather ubiquitous as it has been detected in several star-forming regions such as W3, Orion A, Sgr B2, Sgr A, of which several include photon-dominated regions (PDRs), most notably M17 SW. It has also been detected in the circumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich late-type star CW Leo, also known as IRC +10216.
  
 A. Wootten, E. P. Bozyan, D. P. Garrett, R. B. Loren, and R. L. Snell reported on the\\ A. Wootten, E. P. Bozyan, D. P. Garrett, R. B. Loren, and R. L. Snell reported on the\\
-**[[http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/​abs/​1980ApJ...239..844W|Detection of C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H in Cold Dark Clouds]]**,​\\+**[[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1980ApJ...239..844W|Detection of C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H in Cold Dark Clouds]]**,​\\
 //​Astrophys. J.// **239** 944–854 (1980). //​Astrophys. J.// **239** 944–854 (1980).
  
 The radical was also observed in the diffuse medium by:\\ The radical was also observed in the diffuse medium by:\\
 L.-Å. Nyman,\\ L.-Å. Nyman,\\
-**[[http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/​abs/​1984A%26A...141..323N|Detection of CS and C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H in Absorption]]**,​\\+**[[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1984A%26A...141..323N|Detection of CS and C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H in Absorption]]**,​\\
 //Astron. Astrophys.//​ **141** 323–327 (1984). //Astron. Astrophys.//​ **141** 323–327 (1984).
  
 C<​sub>​2</​sub>​D was detected near 216.4 GHz with the 5 m MWO telescope toward Orion KL by:\\ C<​sub>​2</​sub>​D was detected near 216.4 GHz with the 5 m MWO telescope toward Orion KL by:\\
 F. Combes, F. Boulanger, P. J. Encrenaz, M. Gerin, M. Bogey, C. Demuynck, J. L. Destomb,\\ F. Combes, F. Boulanger, P. J. Encrenaz, M. Gerin, M. Bogey, C. Demuynck, J. L. Destomb,\\
-**[[http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/​abs/​1985A%26A...147L..25C|Detection of Interstellar CCD]]**,\\+**[[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1985A%26A...147L..25C|Detection of Interstellar CCD]]**,\\
 //Astron. Astrophys.//​ **147** L25–L26 (1985). //Astron. Astrophys.//​ **147** L25–L26 (1985).
  
 The detection of the <​sup>​13</​sup>​C isotopic species was reported in:\\ The detection of the <​sup>​13</​sup>​C isotopic species was reported in:\\
 A. H. Saleck, R. Simon, G. Winnewisser,​ J. G. A. Wouterloot,​\\ A. H. Saleck, R. Simon, G. Winnewisser,​ J. G. A. Wouterloot,​\\
-**[[http://dx.doi.org/​10.1139/​p94-098|Detection of Interstellar <​sup>​13</​sup>​CCH and C<​sup>​13</​sup>​CH]]**,​\\+**[[https://​doi.org/​10.1139/​p94-098|Detection of Interstellar <​sup>​13</​sup>​CCH and C<​sup>​13</​sup>​CH]]**,​\\
 //Can. J. Phys.// **72** 747–754 (1994). //Can. J. Phys.// **72** 747–754 (1994).
  
 Three out of four observable fine structure components of the //N// = 3 – 2 rotational transition of vibrationally excited C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H were reportedly not overlapped:​\\ Three out of four observable fine structure components of the //N// = 3 – 2 rotational transition of vibrationally excited C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H were reportedly not overlapped:​\\
 E. D. Tenenbaum, J. L. Dodd, S. N. Milam, N. J. Woolf, and L. M. Ziurys,\\ E. D. Tenenbaum, J. L. Dodd, S. N. Milam, N. J. Woolf, and L. M. Ziurys,\\
-**[[http://dx.doi.org/​10.1088/​2041-8205/​720/​1/​L102|Comparative Spectra of Oxygen-rich Versus Carbon-rich Circumstellar Shells: VY Canis Majoris and IRC +10216 at 215-285 GHz]]**,​\\+**[[https://​doi.org/​10.1088/​2041-8205/​720/​1/​L102|Comparative Spectra of Oxygen-rich Versus Carbon-rich Circumstellar Shells: VY Canis Majoris and IRC +10216 at 215-285 GHz]]**,​\\
 //​Astrophys. J.// **720** L102–L107 (2010).\\ //​Astrophys. J.// **720** L102–L107 (2010).\\
 The features were detected in the outer part of the circumstellar envelope of CW Leo; hence, the detection must be facilitated by formation pumping or by IR pumping. The features were detected in the outer part of the circumstellar envelope of CW Leo; hence, the detection must be facilitated by formation pumping or by IR pumping.
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 The //​A//​ <​sup>​2</​sup>​Π – //​X//​ <​sup>​2</​sup>​Σ<​sup>​+</​sup>​ first excited electronic transition of C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H is distributed over at least 5 bands because of vibronic coupling of the //A// with various higher excited vibrational Π states of the ground electronic //X// state. Almost 30 lines belonging to two of the stronger bands were detected with the Mayall telescope near 4011 and 4108 cm<​sup>​–1</​sup>​ in the outer region of the circumstellar envelope of CW Leo by\\ The //​A//​ <​sup>​2</​sup>​Π – //​X//​ <​sup>​2</​sup>​Σ<​sup>​+</​sup>​ first excited electronic transition of C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H is distributed over at least 5 bands because of vibronic coupling of the //A// with various higher excited vibrational Π states of the ground electronic //X// state. Almost 30 lines belonging to two of the stronger bands were detected with the Mayall telescope near 4011 and 4108 cm<​sup>​–1</​sup>​ in the outer region of the circumstellar envelope of CW Leo by\\
 J. J. Keady and K. H. Hinkle,\\ J. J. Keady and K. H. Hinkle,\\
-**[[http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/​abs/​1988ApJ...331..539K|C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H in the 2 micron Infrared Spectrum of IRC +10216]]**,​\\+**[[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1988ApJ...331..539K|C<​sub>​2</​sub>​H in the 2 micron Infrared Spectrum of IRC +10216]]**,​\\
 //​Astrophys. J.// **331** 539–546 (1988).\\ //​Astrophys. J.// **331** 539–546 (1988).\\
 The rotational temperature of 12.5 ± 1.5 K suggests a peak abundance about 1200 stellar radii away from CW Leo, and the line intensities indicate a high fractional abundance with respect to H<​sub>​2</​sub>​. The rotational temperature of 12.5 ± 1.5 K suggests a peak abundance about 1200 stellar radii away from CW Leo, and the line intensities indicate a high fractional abundance with respect to H<​sub>​2</​sub>​.
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 Contributor(s):​ H. S. P. Müller; 1, 2012 Contributor(s):​ H. S. P. Müller; 1, 2012
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