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molecules:ism:o2 [2019/02/25 22:38]
127.0.0.1 external edit
molecules:ism:o2 [2019/10/18 13:01] (current)
mueller
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 The //​N<​sub>​J</​sub>//​ = 3<​sub>​3</​sub>​ – 1<​sub>​2</​sub>​ line of molecular oxygen at 487249.270 (30) MHz has been detected tentatively with the SWAS satellite:​\\ The //​N<​sub>​J</​sub>//​ = 3<​sub>​3</​sub>​ – 1<​sub>​2</​sub>​ line of molecular oxygen at 487249.270 (30) MHz has been detected tentatively with the SWAS satellite:​\\
 P. F. Goldsmith, D. Li, E. A. Bergin, G. J. Melnick, V. Tolls, J. E. Howe, R. L. Snell, and D. A. Neufeld,\\ P. F. Goldsmith, D. Li, E. A. Bergin, G. J. Melnick, V. Tolls, J. E. Howe, R. L. Snell, and D. A. Neufeld,\\
-**[[http://dx.doi.org/​10.1086/​341809|Tentative Detection of Molecular Oxygen in the ρ Ophiuchi Cloud]]**\\+**[[https://​doi.org/​10.1086/​341809|Tentative Detection of Molecular Oxygen in the ρ Ophiuchi Cloud]]**\\
 //​Astrophys. J.// **576**, 814–831 (2002).\\ //​Astrophys. J.// **576**, 814–831 (2002).\\
 A column density of 3.17 (62) × 10<​sup>​16</​sup>​cm<​sup>​–2</​sup>​ was derived. Since the column density of H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ is rather uncertain, the fractional abundances of O<​sub>​2</​sub>​ with respect to H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ should be compared with great caution.\\ A column density of 3.17 (62) × 10<​sup>​16</​sup>​cm<​sup>​–2</​sup>​ was derived. Since the column density of H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ is rather uncertain, the fractional abundances of O<​sub>​2</​sub>​ with respect to H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ should be compared with great caution.\\
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 More recently, the //​N<​sub>​J</​sub>//​ = 1<​sub>​1</​sub>​ – 1<​sub>​0</​sub>​ line at 118750.340 (7) MHz was reported as a 5σ line toward the same source:\\ More recently, the //​N<​sub>​J</​sub>//​ = 1<​sub>​1</​sub>​ – 1<​sub>​0</​sub>​ line at 118750.340 (7) MHz was reported as a 5σ line toward the same source:\\
 B. Larsson, R. Liseau, L. Pagani, P. Bergman, P. Bernath, N. Biver, J. H. Black, R. S. Booth, V. Buat, J. Crovisier, C. L. Curry, M. Dahlgren, P. J. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, P. A. Feldman, M. Fich, H. G. Florén, M. Fredrixon, U. Frisk, G. F. Gahm, M. Gerin, M. Hagström, J. Harju, T. Hasegawa, Å. Hjalmarson, L. E. B. Johansson, K. Justtanont, A. Klotz, E. Kyrölä, S. Kwok, A. Lecacheux, T. Liljeström,​ E. J. Llewellyn, S. Lundin, G. Mégie, G. F. Mitchell, D. Murtagh, L. H. Nordh, L.-Å. Nyman, M. Olberg, A. O. H. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, H. Olofsson, G. Persson, R. Plume, H. Rickman, I. Ristorcelli,​ G. Rydbeck, A. A. Sandqvist, F. V. Schéele, G. Serra, S. Torchinsky, N. F. Tothill, K. Volk, T. Wiklind, C. D. Wilson, A. Winnberg, and G. Witt,\\ B. Larsson, R. Liseau, L. Pagani, P. Bergman, P. Bernath, N. Biver, J. H. Black, R. S. Booth, V. Buat, J. Crovisier, C. L. Curry, M. Dahlgren, P. J. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, P. A. Feldman, M. Fich, H. G. Florén, M. Fredrixon, U. Frisk, G. F. Gahm, M. Gerin, M. Hagström, J. Harju, T. Hasegawa, Å. Hjalmarson, L. E. B. Johansson, K. Justtanont, A. Klotz, E. Kyrölä, S. Kwok, A. Lecacheux, T. Liljeström,​ E. J. Llewellyn, S. Lundin, G. Mégie, G. F. Mitchell, D. Murtagh, L. H. Nordh, L.-Å. Nyman, M. Olberg, A. O. H. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, H. Olofsson, G. Persson, R. Plume, H. Rickman, I. Ristorcelli,​ G. Rydbeck, A. A. Sandqvist, F. V. Schéele, G. Serra, S. Torchinsky, N. F. Tothill, K. Volk, T. Wiklind, C. D. Wilson, A. Winnberg, and G. Witt,\\
-**[[http://dx.doi.org/​10.1051/​0004-6361:​20065500|Molecular Oxygen in the ρ Ophiuchi Cloud]]**\\+**[[https://​doi.org/​10.1051/​0004-6361:​20065500|Molecular Oxygen in the ρ Ophiuchi Cloud]]**\\
 //Astron. Astrophys.//​ **466**, 999–1003 (2007).\\ //Astron. Astrophys.//​ **466**, 999–1003 (2007).\\
 The observations were carried out with the //Odin// satellite. A column density of 1 × 10<​sup>​15</​sup>​cm<​sup>​–2</​sup>​ was derived, considerably lower than in the paper above. This indicates that the 487 GHz line is very likely caused by a different, currently unknown species. The relative abundance to H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ is, as rather commonly, very uncertain. It has been estimated as 5 × 10<​sup>​–8</​sup>​. As this is the only O<​sub>​2</​sub>​ line that has been observed with some certainty, the detection of O<​sub>​2</​sub>​ should still be viewed with a bit of caution. The observations were carried out with the //Odin// satellite. A column density of 1 × 10<​sup>​15</​sup>​cm<​sup>​–2</​sup>​ was derived, considerably lower than in the paper above. This indicates that the 487 GHz line is very likely caused by a different, currently unknown species. The relative abundance to H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ is, as rather commonly, very uncertain. It has been estimated as 5 × 10<​sup>​–8</​sup>​. As this is the only O<​sub>​2</​sub>​ line that has been observed with some certainty, the detection of O<​sub>​2</​sub>​ should still be viewed with a bit of caution.
Line 17: Line 17:
 A total of three lines, //​N<​sub>​J</​sub>//​ = 3<​sub>​3</​sub>​ – 1<​sub>​2</​sub>,​ 5<​sub>​4</​sub>​ – 3<​sub>​4</​sub>,​ and 7<​sub>​6</​sub>​ – 5<​sub>​6</​sub>,​ at 487249.264 (17),​ 773839.512 (48),​ and 1120714.821 (31) MHz,​ respectively,​ were recently reported by:\\ A total of three lines, //​N<​sub>​J</​sub>//​ = 3<​sub>​3</​sub>​ – 1<​sub>​2</​sub>,​ 5<​sub>​4</​sub>​ – 3<​sub>​4</​sub>,​ and 7<​sub>​6</​sub>​ – 5<​sub>​6</​sub>,​ at 487249.264 (17),​ 773839.512 (48),​ and 1120714.821 (31) MHz,​ respectively,​ were recently reported by:\\
 P. F. Goldsmith, R. Liseau, T. A. Bell, J. H. Black, J.-H. Chen, D. Hollenbach, M. J. Kaufman, D. Li, D. C. Lis, G. Melnick, D. Neufeld, L. Pagani, R. Snell, A. O. Benz, E. Bergin, S. Bruderer, P. Caselli, E. Caux, P. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, M. Gerin, J. R. Goicoechea, Å. Hjalmarson, B. Larsson, J. Le Bourlot,​ F. Le Petit, M. De Luca, Z. Nagy, E. Roueff, A. Sandqvist, F. van der Tak, E. F. van Dishoeck, C. Vastel, S. Viti, and U. Yildiz,\\ P. F. Goldsmith, R. Liseau, T. A. Bell, J. H. Black, J.-H. Chen, D. Hollenbach, M. J. Kaufman, D. Li, D. C. Lis, G. Melnick, D. Neufeld, L. Pagani, R. Snell, A. O. Benz, E. Bergin, S. Bruderer, P. Caselli, E. Caux, P. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, M. Gerin, J. R. Goicoechea, Å. Hjalmarson, B. Larsson, J. Le Bourlot,​ F. Le Petit, M. De Luca, Z. Nagy, E. Roueff, A. Sandqvist, F. van der Tak, E. F. van Dishoeck, C. Vastel, S. Viti, and U. Yildiz,\\
-**[[http://dx.doi.org/​10.1088/​0004-637X/​737/​2/​99|//​Herschel//​ Measurements of Molecular Oxygen in Orion]]**\\+**[[https://​doi.org/​10.1088/​0004-637X/​737/​2/​99|//​Herschel//​ Measurements of Molecular Oxygen in Orion]]**\\
 //​Astrophys. J.// **737**, Art. No. 96 (2011).\\ //​Astrophys. J.// **737**, Art. No. 96 (2011).\\
 Even though the telescope was pointed toward the H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ Peak 1 position with emission lines much weaker in most cases than in the Hot Core region and some 27" away from it, the LSR velocity seems to suggest an association with a region called "​Peak A"​ in the course of ammonia observations in 1983, and it is just outside the Hot Core region. The region is likely warm, 80 to 100 K, possibly even warmer. A column density of 6.5 (10) × 10<​sup>​16</​sup>​cm<​sup>​–2</​sup>​ was derived. The estimate of the abundance relative to H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ was of order of 10<​sup>​–6</​sup>​. Warm dust, rather than shocks, were inferred to explain the fairly high abundance. Even though the telescope was pointed toward the H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ Peak 1 position with emission lines much weaker in most cases than in the Hot Core region and some 27" away from it, the LSR velocity seems to suggest an association with a region called "​Peak A"​ in the course of ammonia observations in 1983, and it is just outside the Hot Core region. The region is likely warm, 80 to 100 K, possibly even warmer. A column density of 6.5 (10) × 10<​sup>​16</​sup>​cm<​sup>​–2</​sup>​ was derived. The estimate of the abundance relative to H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ was of order of 10<​sup>​–6</​sup>​. Warm dust, rather than shocks, were inferred to explain the fairly high abundance.
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 R. Liseau, P. F. Goldsmith, B. Larsson, L. Pagani, P. Bergman, J. Le Bourlot, T. A. Bell, A. O. Benz, E. A. Bergin, P. Bjerkeli, J. H. Black, S. Bruderer, P. Caselli, E. Caux, J.-H. Chen, M. de Luca, P. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, M. Gerin, J. R. Goicoechea, Å. Hjalmarson, D. J. Hollenbach, K. Justtanont, M. J. Kaufman, F. Le Petit, D. Li, D. C. Lis, G. J. Melnick, Z. Nagy, A. O. H. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, E. Roueff, Aa. Sandqvist, R. L. Snell, F. F. S. van der Tak, E. F. van Dishoeck, C. Vastel, S. Viti, and U. A. Yildiz,\\ R. Liseau, P. F. Goldsmith, B. Larsson, L. Pagani, P. Bergman, J. Le Bourlot, T. A. Bell, A. O. Benz, E. A. Bergin, P. Bjerkeli, J. H. Black, S. Bruderer, P. Caselli, E. Caux, J.-H. Chen, M. de Luca, P. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, M. Gerin, J. R. Goicoechea, Å. Hjalmarson, D. J. Hollenbach, K. Justtanont, M. J. Kaufman, F. Le Petit, D. Li, D. C. Lis, G. J. Melnick, Z. Nagy, A. O. H. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, E. Roueff, Aa. Sandqvist, R. L. Snell, F. F. S. van der Tak, E. F. van Dishoeck, C. Vastel, S. Viti, and U. A. Yildiz,\\
 reported on,\\ reported on,\\
-**[[http://dx.doi.org/​10.1051/​0004-6361/​201118575|Multi-line Detection of O<​sub>​2</​sub>​ toward ρ Ophuichi A]]**\\+**[[https://​doi.org/​10.1051/​0004-6361/​201118575|Multi-line Detection of O<​sub>​2</​sub>​ toward ρ Ophuichi A]]**\\
 //Astron. Astrophys.//​ **541**, Art. No. A73 (2012).\\ //Astron. Astrophys.//​ **541**, Art. No. A73 (2012).\\
 The HIFI instrument on board of the //​Herschel//​ satellite was usd to study lines at 487.2 GHz and at 773.8 GHz. This investigation extends the one performed with the Odin satellite mentioned above and secures that identification. The HIFI instrument on board of the //​Herschel//​ satellite was usd to study lines at 487.2 GHz and at 773.8 GHz. This investigation extends the one performed with the Odin satellite mentioned above and secures that identification.
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 Contributor(s):​ H. S. P. Müller; 12, 2003; 02, 2006; 04, 2007; 08, 2011; 05, 2012 Contributor(s):​ H. S. P. Müller; 12, 2003; 02, 2006; 04, 2007; 08, 2011; 05, 2012
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